This HowTo describes how to transform your local national data to INSPIRE harmonized data and how to embed this transformation in a complete ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) chain. This will be illustrated using some of the existing transformation resources present within the project. In the remainder of this document the term « ETL » will be used for the overall process from local data to harmonized INSPIRE data. « Content Transformation » is a similar term as ETL and may be found in some of the documentation. The ETL is tightly integrated with the provision of download and view network services via WFS and respectively WMS. These network services are not part of this HowTo.
The image below shows the core/skeleton ETL chain. Although this image shows some data specific to the Dutch Kadaster (Oracle and MapInfo), the overall processing steps remain identical and will be expanded below. The circles depict processing steps, the rectangles intermediate results (files). The arrows denote the flow of data.
Note: in some cases, as will be described below, the export and ‘OGR` processing steps may be bundled together into a single processing step.
This section contains references to the main background knowledge that helps to understand and conduct the ETL development process.
In order to grasp the steps that follow in upcoming sections we advise to first read about the concepts, design and technologies underlying the ETL.
The main document (HTML and PDF) to start with is http://inspire.kademo.nl/doc. Although this document has references to data specific to the Dutch Kadaster it has general applicability. In particular the sections about Concepts and ETL Design should provide the basic information on the basics of the ETL. This document also provides some specific information on the ETL Implementation where actual code is even directly included within the document. Though the ETL may look different for each dataset and target INSPIRE Theme, there are underlying « patterns » which not only divide the ETL components into logical units but also make many of these components highly reusable.
All code for existing ETL can be browsed online via the ETL folder within the Subversion repository. As you may have noticed the directory layout under the etl folder is organized by <Country>.<Data Provider>/<INSPIRE Theme>, for example NL.RWS/TransportNetworks. Directly under etl is a directory called shared that contains shared ETL code for multiple data providers and INSPIRE Themes. Not all data providers follow this convention yet. Best is to look under NL.Kadaster and NL.RWS.
Further background knowledge that helps in understanding the ETL implementation deals with the technologies that are used:
- GDAL/OGR core format and projection transformation. Although GDAL/OGR is an entire suite of libraries/tools, only a single command-line tool is used: ogr2ogr.
- XSLT is used for model/schema transformation. To learn about XSLT, the best source to start is the XSLT tutorial at W3Schools.com.
- The ETL chain and the invokation of the tools like xsltproc and ogr2ogr are « glued » together using Unix/Linux shell scripts. To learn the Steve’s Bourne / Bash shell scripting tutorial is a good starting point.
Whatever tools you will use to transform your data to INSPIRE, you have to be familiar with the formats and schema’s of both your data and the targeted harmonized INSPIRE data.
For INSPIRE data models you need to be familiar with the following:
- XML Schema Definition Language (XSD) – see tutorial at W3Schools.com
- GML (version 3.2.1) Schemas
- ISO Application Schemas
- The related INSPIRE Schema’s (XSDs) for your target Theme(s)
All applicable XSD files have been added to the project and can be browsed but the easiest is to use an XML editor or IDE like IntelliJ to be able to navigate the schema files.
Last but not least you need to have a specification of your own data.
So with all the reference documents, tools and data, what are the steps to develop an ETL for a source dataset X and a target INSPIRE Theme Y ? Basically it is best to look at the existing ETLs under the ETL folder within the Subversion repository but we will try here to list a set of subsequent steps for the development process. Once you are familiar with the process you may change the order of the steps.
Without going into details, here is a summary of the main steps for developing an ETL for any source dataset X.
- Mapping Specs – define the mapping from your source data objects/attributes to target INSPIRE Annex I-III Theme GML Features/properties in a document/Excel sheet.
- Flatten – convert your source DB data into any simple/flat feature format: CSV, ESRI Shapefile, MapInfo File, flat GML, ….
- Make GML – convert and reproject data from 2. into simple (flat) feature GML in the EPSG:4258 (ETRS89) projection
- Test Samples – get some representative sample GML from the file(s) generated in step 3 to be used to develop/test schema transformation with XSLT and put this GML in a test directory
- XSLT Develop – develop the core schema XSLT transformation by creating the following components (files)
- XSLT (callable templates) for the target feature(s) generation within the shared ETL directory
- XSLT for the extraction of attributes from the source GML (see step 4.) and calling the XSLT callable templates
- XSLT for the spatial dataset GML container generation
- the shell script to invoke the transformation described here in these first 3 bullets
- Validation – validate the resulting output GML of step 5 using the project validator tool.
- Load – develop a Unix script that loads the test data into PostGIS
- Full ETL – develop Unix shell scripts to execute the ETL developed in step 1-5 for the full source dataset
- WFS/WMS test – optional: use the deegree WFS/WMS for testing the full dataset ETL
This was the summary of steps. At this point it may not be clear what each step exactly beholds. The sections below will expand the steps further.
The running example in the steps is the INSPIRE Annex I Theme TransportNetworks from the data provider « NL.RWS », i.e. Rijkswaterstaat, the Netherlands Ministry of Transport, Waterways and Public Works. See also the etl/NL.RWS folder. The local NL.RWS data (model) used is called Nationaal Wegen Bestand (NWB), the Dutch national (topological) road dataset. This dataset will be called NWB from here on.
This actual NWB example was developed in analogy to the TransportNetworks Theme developed under « NL.Kadaster ». See etl/NL.Kadaster/TransportNetworks folder.
Define the mapping from your source data objects/attributes to target INSPIRE Annex I-III Theme GML Features/properties in a document/Excel sheet.
This is literally a « paper exercise », as we will document how our local national model will map to (an) INSPIRE data Theme model(s). Some local data like the Dutch Top10NL may map to multiple INSPIRE data themes, but in most cases a single local data model will map to a single INSPIRE Theme.
Warning: getting through the PDF and the related XSD(s) is a tough read !
The outcome of this step can take any form, graphically. An often used template is that of an « Excel Mapping Table ». An example (Excel+PDF) for NWB to RoadTransportNetwork can be found in Subversion.
Note: for NWB a wegvak corresponds to an INSPIRE RoadLink but what about wegvak junctions. An obvious candidate is RoadNode. Also there are certain wegvakken that may be mapped to INSPIRE ERoads (E-wegen). This is an extercise for further development.
Convert your source DB data into any simple/flat feature format: CSV, ESRI Shapefile, MapInfo File, flat GML.
Often the source dataset resides in a production database such as Oracle Spatial or PostgreSQL/PostGIS and direct access for ETL is not possible.
This step beholds extracting data from that production environment and making this available. Also it is best to start with a small but representative geographic area from the entire country.
For NWB this step had already be performed, resulting in an extract for a small area north of the city of Amsterdam. The format in which this data was delivered is ESRI Shapefile. Basically the NWB is a single table (.shp file) with coordinates in the Dutch RD projection (EPSG:28992).
Note: if you are in the workshop using the InspireFossBoxSetup, you will find the NWB Shapefile in the directory inspire/data/NWB under your home directory.
Convert and reproject data from 2. into simple (flat) feature GML in the EPSG:4258 (ETRS89) projection.
The purpose of this step is multifold:
- reproject data from the source projection to an INSPIRE projection
- make your data readable as GML
- provide input for Step 4 (extract test samples)
This step is thus partly an Extract and partly a Transform (coordinate transform) within the ETL chain.
For NWB this step is performend using the shell script tn-extract.sh. The heart of this script is the line:
$TO_GML_SCRIPT -t MULTILINESTRING nwb_wegvakken.shp transformed/nwb_wegvakken.gml
$TO_GML_SCRIPT refers to the script to-gml.sh which converts any flat file format like ERSI Shapefile or MapInfo to flat GML. The heart of to-gml.sh is the GDAL ogr2ogr command:
ogr2ogr -nlt $geotype -t_srs "$proj4258" -s_srs "$proj28992" -f "GML" $2 $1
where $geotype is MULTILINESTRING and $2 is transformed/nwb_wegvakken.gml and $1 is the input file nwb_wegvakken.shp.
Note: if you are in the workshop using the InspireFossBoxSetup, you will find the GML converted from NWB Shapefile in the directory inspire/data/NWB/transformed under your home directory.
In some cases where you have direct access to the source database Steps 2+3 could be merged together using a single ogr2ogr command, as GDAL/OGR also can handle databases such as Oracle and PostGIS as input.
Get some representative sample GML from the file(s) generated in step 3 to be used to develop/test schema transformation with XSLT and put this GML in a test directory.
For NWB the test directory is at etl/NL.RWS/TransportNetworks/test.
The test sample GML file is wegvakken.gml.
This is the heart of transformation: here we develop the XSLT to transform from the flat GML format resulting from Step 3 into full INSPIRE schema GML. As we want to develop quickly, we take the test GML samples from Step 4 as source data.
This is also the step where part of the transformation is specific (to the local source data) and part is generic/reusable. The main structure of the XSLT is depicted in the figure below.
What we see in this figure is two levels of reuse:
- among data providers, for example both Kadaster and RWS can reuse callable templates for RoadTransportNetwork.
- between themes: for example GeographicalNames
The three levels of XSL scripts depicted in the figure correspond bottom to top to the Steps 5a-5c below.
Here we will develop/reuse generic XSLT Callable Templates for the target feature(s) generation within the shared ETL directory.
One way to look at these XSLT scripts is as ordinary functions that generate an GML construct with parameters filled in.
Here we will write an XSLT that mainly will extract attributes from the local source GML (see step 4.) and calling the XSLT callable templates from step 5a.
For NWB the result is etl/NL.RWS/TransportNetworks/local-to-inspire-tn-ro.xsl. With tn-ro being the XML Namespace for RoadTransportNetwork.
Here we will write an XSLT to generate what is called a « spatial dataset GML container ». This is mainly the outer XML tags/attributes to hold all transformed features.
INSPIRE has defined a SpatialDataset as a container within BaseTypes.xsd. Another container (not implemented here) that can be used could be a WFS-T transaction.
For NWB the result is etl/NL.RWS/TransportNetworks/local-to-inspire-tn-ro-sd.xsl.
With -sd- stands for SpatialDataset.
Here we develop the shell script to invoke the transformation described here in Steps 5a-5c.
For NWB the result is etl/NL.RWS/TransportNetworks/local-to-inspire-tn-ro-sd.sh. Basically a simple script:
BASEDIR=`dirname $0`/.. BASEDIR=`(cd "$BASEDIR"; pwd)` # use the common script $BASEDIR/../shared/bin/xslt.sh $BASEDIR/TransportNetworks/local-to-inspire-tn-ro-sd.xsl $1 $2
BASEDIR is used to be able to execute the script from any other dir and still find the file etl/NL.RWS/TransportNetworks/local-to-inspire-tn-ro-sd.xsl.
For testing our sample GML we use the script etl/NL.RWS/TransportNetworks/test/transform.sh
The final GML result form the test file is: etl/NL.RWS/TransportNetworks/test/tn-roadnetwork.gml
This step is mainly a shell script to invoke the standard Validator present in the project. In practice Step 5 and Step 6 are used in an iterative fashion: develop some XSLT, generate INSPIRE GML, validate etc.
For NWB see: etl/NL.RWS/TransportNetworks/test/validate.sh.
This step is mainly a shell script to invoke the standard deegree FSLoader present in the project. The advantage of FSLoader is that the deegree server does not need to be running.
Note that if you chose to use a WFS-T GML container in step 5c you can also use an HTTP tool like curl.
For testing our sample GML we use the script etl/NL.RWS/TransportNetworks/test/load.sh
Here we invoke the ETL on the entire source dataset.
For NWB we use the script: etl/NL.RWS/bin/tn-etl.sh.
This step is optional but it is always nice to see something. (TO BE FINALIZED)